In an English-speaking country, Standard English SE is the variety of English that has undergone substantial regularization and is associated with formal schooling, language assessment, and official print publications, such as public-service announcements and newspapers of recordetc.
Although a standard English is generally used in public and official communications and settings, there is a range of registers stylistic levelssuch as those for journalism print, television, internet and for academic publishing monographs, academic papers, internet. The distinction among registers also exists between the spoken and the written forms of SE, which are characterised by degrees of formality; therefore, Standard English is distinct from formal English, because it features stylistic variations, ranging from casual to formal.
Functionally, the national varieties of SE are characterized by generally accepted rules, often grammars established by linguistic prescription in the 18th century. English originated in England during the Anglo-Saxon periodand is now spoken as a first or second language in many countries of the world, many of which have developed one or more "national standards" though this does not refer to published standards documentsbut to frequency of consistent usage.
English is the first language of the majority of the population in a number of countriesincluding the United Kingdomthe United StatesCanadaRepublic of IrelandAustraliaNew ZealandJamaicaTrinidad and Tobagothe Bahamas and Barbados and is an official language in many othersincluding IndiaPakistanthe PhilippinesSouth Africa and Nigeria ; each country has a standard English with a grammar, spelling and pronunciation particular to the local culture.
As the result of colonisation and historical migrations of English-speaking populations, and the predominant use of English as the international language of trade and commerce a lingua francaEnglish has also become the most widely used second language. This does, however, vary between regions and individual teachers. In some areas a pidgin or creole language blends English with one or more native languages. Although the standard Englishes of the anglophone countries are similar, there are minor grammatical differences and divergences of vocabulary among the varieties.
In American and Australian English, for example, "sunk" and "shrunk" as past-tense forms of "sink" and "shrink" are acceptable as standard forms, whereas standard British English retains the past-tense forms of "sank" and "shrank".
This phenomenon sees the objects of transitive verbs being omitted: "Did you get? With rare exceptions, Standard Englishes use either American or British spelling systems, or a mixture of the two such as in Australian EnglishCanadian Englishand Indian English spelling. British spellings usually dominate in Commonwealth countries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: English grammar. Further information: Comparison of American and British English. This section is empty.
You can help by adding to it.Best super mario world rom hacks
May Main article: English orthography. Further information: American and British English spelling differences. Watts, eds. Standard English: The Widening Debate. Routledge, Non-Standard English Dialects. This variety, which is perceived as officialis used in writing, the education system grammar books and dictionariesthe court, the church, in newspapers, the media and for official purposes.
It sets a certain set of rules for the English language in terms of grammar, syntax and lexis. Standard English can be spoken in a vast range of regional accents or without any regional pronunciation. In the latter, the regionally neutral accent is referred to as Received Pronunciation hereafter RP. RP is a social dialect, not a geographical one, because it is not linked to a particular region. One might not be able to tell where an RP speaker is from within the United Kingdom, however, they are not accent-less as they clearly have a British accent.
This also implies that, although all RP speakers speak Standard English, Standard English can be spoken with an accent. On this note it needs to be mentioned that there is a clear distinction between an accent and a dialect. An accent of a speaker refers only to the pronunciation of utterances, whereas a dialect describes the lexical use, grammar and pronunciation. By the s, however, it had become associated with social class and was seen by many as the language of the educated. With regard to this, not much has changed since then.
Standard English is still referred to and spoken by British people who have a very high, perhaps even the highest, social status and therefore are the most influential, educated, prestigious and wealthiest people in the United Kingdom. Hence, Standard English is held in high esteem within society.
However, they are the minority of the British population. Only a small percentage of UK residents have upper or upper-middle class backgrounds.Mustang ignition switch wiring diagram
The dialects of rural areas often contain more distinctive lexis and grammar than those of urban areas, because speakers of these varieties are not often exposed to being in contact with speakers of other dialects.
Occasionally, nonstandard dialects are more accurate than Standard English. This is extremely common in urban areas, such as London and Tyneside. New linguistic features diffuse in these areas and due to the high degrees of contact and mobility of the speakers, linguistic homogenisation might be an outcome in the future. Estuary English is one example — it is the only regional levelling process that has received a name.Onlain m3u8 za web kanale
EE has some distinctive lexical features. Coggle Do You Speak Estuary? It is uncertain to which extent mobility and contact between various speakers of an accent will have on the development of dialects in the future, but it is certainly an interesting phenomena to watch. Standard English vs. Standard English started as a regional dialect that developed in the southeast of England.
Received pronunciation In the latter, the regionally neutral accent is referred to as Received Pronunciation hereafter RP. How Culture is Important in Language Learning.
Recent Popular. Implementing E-learning in Multilingual Organisations. Understanding the 6 Dimensions of UK Culture.
For free demos and worksheets. Follow us on Blogarama. Your email address will not be published. The child cried …………………………………. Sonali writes very………………………………………. The lion roared…………………………………. Our soldiers fought ……………………………… and won the battle. We should always speak……………………………………. He does his work………………………………. Sonali sings so………………………………………….
We are getting late. Shweta can speak Russian…………………………………………. Fill in the blanks with suitable Adverbs of place. Choose from the box. My parents are going………………………………………….
The water will flow……………………………………… When are you coming ……………………………… to India? The traveler was shocked when he looked………………………………………. Fill in the blanks with suitable adverbs of time. Our class went on a picnic…………………………………… The train will be arriving………………………………… they are coming here……………………………………… I hope to meet you again…………………………………. When should we expect you here…………………………………. Fill in the blanks with the adverbs opposite in meaning to those given in brackets The children played in the park………………………………….
What is the Advantages Of Online Education? No comments, be the first one to comment! Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Blog Search Search for:. All Rights Reserved. Terms and Conditions We are Hiring!English grammar is the way in which meanings are encoded into wordings in the English language.
This includes the structure of wordsphrasesclausesand sentencesright up to the structure of whole texts. There are historical, social, cultural and regional variations of English. Divergences from the grammar described here occur in some dialects. This article describes a generalized present-day Standard English — a form of speech and writing used in public discourse, including broadcasting, education, entertainment, government, and news, over a range of registers from formal to informal.
There are differences in grammar between the standard forms of BritishAmericanand Australian Englishalthough these are more minor than differences in vocabulary and pronunciation. Modern English has largely abandoned the inflectional case system of Indo-European in favor of analytic constructions.
The personal pronouns retain morphological case more strongly than any other word class a remnant of the more extensive Germanic case system of Old English.
For other pronouns, and all nouns, adjectives, and articles, grammatical function is indicated only by word orderby prepositionsand by the " Saxon genitive or English possessive " -'s. Eight "word classes" or "parts of speech" are commonly distinguished in English: nounsdeterminerspronounsverbsadjectivesadverbsprepositionsand conjunctions.
Nouns form the largest word class, and verbs the second-largest. Unlike many Indo-European languages, English nouns do not have grammatical gender. Nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs form open classes — word classes that readily accept new members, such as the noun celebutante a celebrity who frequents the fashion circlesand other similar relatively new words.
For example, it is rare for a new pronoun to enter the language. Determiners, traditionally classified along with adjectives, have not always been regarded as a separate part of speech. Interjections are another word class, but these are not described here as they do not form part of the clause and sentence structure of the language. Linguists generally accept nine English word classes: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, and exclamations.
English words are not generally marked for word class. It is not usually possible to tell from the form of a word which class it belongs to except, to some extent, in the case of words with inflectional endings or derivational suffixes. On the other hand, most words belong to more than one word class. For example, run can serve as either a verb or a noun these are regarded as two different lexemes.
The lexeme run has the forms runsranrunnyrunnerand running. This has the potential to give rise to new words.
Third Grade Grammar Worksheets and Printables
The noun aerobics has recently given rise to the adjective aerobicized. Words combine to form phrases. A phrase typically serves the same function as a word from some particular word class. Similarly, adjectival phrases and adverbial phrases function as if they were adjectives or adverbs, but with other types of phrases the terminology has different implications.
For example, a verb phrase consists of a verb together with any objects and other dependents; a prepositional phrase consists of a preposition and its complement and is therefore usually a type of adverbial phrase ; and a determiner phrase is a type of noun phrase containing a determiner.
Many common suffixes form nouns from other nouns or from other types of words, such as -age as in shrinkage-hood as in sisterhoodand so on,  although many nouns are base forms not containing any such suffix such as catgrassFrance.Others use the term to refer to a specific geographical dialect of English or a dialect favored by the most powerful and prestigious social group.
Some linguists argue that there really is no single standard of English. It may be revealing to examine some of the presumptions that lie behind these various interpretations. The following comments--from linguistslexicographersgrammariansand journalists--are offered in the spirit of fostering discussion rather than resolving all the many complex issues that surround the term "Standard English.
A form that is considered standard in one region may be nonstandard in another, and a form that is standard by contrast with one variety for example the language of inner-city African Americans may be considered nonstandard by contrast with the usage of middle-class professionals.
No matter how it is interpreted, however, Standard English in this sense shouldn't be regarded as being necessarily correct or unexceptionable, since it will include many kinds of language that could be faulted on various grounds, like the language of corporate memos and television advertisements or the conversations of middle-class high-school students.
Thus while the term can serve a useful descriptive purpose providing the context makes its meaning clear, it shouldn't be construed as conferring any absolute positive evaluation. True, its use by an individual may be largely the result of a long process of education; but Standard English is neither the product of linguistic planning or philosophy for example as exists for French in the deliberations of the Academie Francaise, or policies devised in similar terms for Hebrew, Irish, Welsh, Bahasa Malaysia, etc ; nor is it a closely-defined norm whose use and maintenance is monitored by some quasi-official body, with penalties imposed for non-use or mis-use.
Standard English evolved: it was not produced by conscious design. There are many grammar books, dictionaries and guides to English usage which describe and give advice on the standard English that appears in writing However, there is often also a tendency to apply these judgments, which are about written Englishto spoken English. But the norms of spoken and written language are not the same; people don't talk like books even in the most formal of situations or contexts.
If you can't refer to a written norm to describe spoken language, then, as we have seen, you base your judgments on the speech of the "best people," the "educated" or higher social classes.
But basing your judgments on the usage of the educated is not without its difficulties. Speakers, even educated ones, use a variety of different forms Routledge, If Standard English is not therefore a language, an accent, a style or a register, then of course we are obliged to say what it actually is. The answer is, as at least most British sociolinguists are agreed, that Standard English is a dialect Standard English is simply one variety of English among many.
It is a sub-variety of English Historically, we can say that Standard English was selected though of course, unlike many other languages, not by any overt or conscious decision as the variety to become the standard variety precisely because it was the variety associated with the social group with the highest degree of power, wealth and prestige. Subsequent developments have reinforced its social character: the fact that it has been employed as the dialect of an education to which pupils, especially in earlier centuries, have had differential access depending on their social class background.
In countries where the majority speak English as their first language one dialect is used nationally for official purposes. It is called Standard English. Standard English is the national dialect that generally appears in print. It is taught in schools, and students are expected to use it in their essays.Share Flipboard Email. Richard Nordquist.
English and Rhetoric Professor. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. The key words in this definition are 'prescribed' and 'authority' so that the responsibility of determining standard forms is largely out of the hands of most speakers of the language.Nouns - Common And Proper - English Grammar For Grade 3 - Periwinkle
In fact, it is not unusual for the same person who prescribes a formal standard English form to violate standard usage in ordinary conversation. Blackwell, Standard American English Usage " Standard American English usage is linguistic good manners, sensitively and accurately matched to context—to listeners or readers, to situation, and to purpose. But because our language is constantly changing, mastering its appropriate usage is not a one-time task like learning the multiplication tables.
Instead, we are constantly obliged to adjust, adapt, and revise what we have learned. Columbia University Press, Standard American English and Social Power " Standard American English is not a variety of English that is inherently 'standard,' or better, or more beautiful, or more logical than other forms of English.
What makes it standard is that some speakers of American English have the social power to impose the variety of English they happen to use on speakers of other varieties. They are in a position to make their English the prestigious form of English. They can do so thanks to their social power. Since this social power is desired by other people, the English spoken by people with power is also desirable for others.
Oxford English Grammar PDF
In this sense, the possession of the prestigious variety is the possession of social power. Broadview, Standard American English Pronunciation - " StAmE pronunciation differs from region to region, even from person to person, because speakers from different circumstances in and different parts of the United States commonly employ regional and social features to some extent even in formal situations.
Kretzschmar, Jr. Mouton De Gruyter, - "As for pronunciation, Standard American English is best defined as the avoidance of pronunciations associated with particular regions or social groups. Cambridge University Press, Skip to main content. Read clear grammar explanations and example sentences to help you understand how the language is used.
Then, put your grammar knowledge into practice by doing the exercises. ICP : Google Tag Manager. Log in Subscribe Newsletter. Choose a section below and start improving your English grammar today! Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns. We often use them to avoid repeating the nouns that they refer to. Pronouns have different forms for the different ways we use them. Determiners and quantifiers.
Determiners and quantifiers are words we use in front of nouns. We use determiners to identify things this book, my sister and we use quantifiers to say how much or how many a few people Possessives are forms that we use to talk about possessions and relationships between things and people. They take different forms depending on how they are used. Read clear grammar Adjectives are words that give more information about a noun or pronoun and can go in different positions in a sentence.
Read clear grammar explanations and example sentences to help you Adverbials are words that we use to give more information about a verb.
- Receipt books - duplicate
- Basilea 3 e la stabilità finanziaria delle banche: quale relazione con
- Logstash parse nested json
- Csgo account gen
- Neuftech usb rfid reader
- Gophish certificate
- Epoll library
- How to limit data usage on wifi router
- Live soccer stats
- Bukti transfer bni
- Titles available
- 2014 ford focus transmission fluid change interval
- Magic iperf
- Acil numaralar resimli
- Family affair hindi bolti kahani
- Prodaja oruzja